UseCase: Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons and electrons, but a different number of neutrons. A hydrogen atom has three known isotopes: hydrogen, deuterium and tritium.


UseCase: Isotones are atoms that have the same number of neutrons but a different number of protons. Boron-12 and carbon-13 are isotones,as both of them contain 7 neutrons.

Structure of Ethanal

UseCase: Ethanol is commonly known as ethyl alcohol. It is an alcohol molecule containing the hydoxy functional group. An ethanol molecule has eight single bonds.

Periodic Trends-valency

UseCase: In the atoms, the electrons which are found in the outermost shell are generally known as valence electrons and the number of valence electrons determines the valency of an atom. The valency of atoms of 1st, 2nd, 13th and 14th group elements are generally given as the numberof valence electrons. And the valency of 15th to 18th group elements can be calculated by subtracting the number of valence electrons from number eight.

Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate

UseCase: The rate of a chemical reaction increases with increase in temperature. For most of the reactions, the rate of reaction becomes nearly double for 10° rise in temperature. This increase is mainly due to the increase in the number of collisions of the reactant particles.

The Substances

Usecase: Pure substances are made of only one type of atom or only one type of molecule. For example, pure iron would only contain iron atoms, pure water would only contain molecules of water.


UseCase: Isobars are atoms that have the same mass number, but a different atomic number. Hence isobars have the same number of nuclides, but a different number of protons.

Valence Electrons

UseCase: Valence electrons are the electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom. Since they are involved in the formation of a molecule, they decide the valency of the atom.

Structure of Methane

UseCase: A methane molecule contains one carbon and four hydrogen atoms. The four hydrogen atoms in methane molecule spread out evenly around the carbon atom, leading to the tetrahedral structure.

Periodic Trends-atmoic Radii

UseCase: The atomic radius of a chemical element is the distance from the center of the nucleus to the outmost boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons. On moving left to right in the periodic table, the atomic radius decreases with the atomic number. Down the group, the atomic radius increases

Structure of Phenol

UseCase: In phenol, hydroxy functional group is directly attached to the sp2 hybridized carbon atom of the benzene ring. The interaction of six unhybridized 2pz orbitals of carbon atoms of the benzene ring leads to the formation of delocalized pi-electron clouds.


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